Lipid profile in normal pregnancy

  • Sinan Butrus Garabet Department of Clinical standards & Guidelines, Kurdistan Higher Council for Medical Specialties, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: Normal pregnancy, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides

Abstract

Background and objectives:  Normal pregnancy is associated with disturbances in various biochemical values .The purpose of this study was to determine whether normal pregnancy is associated with any abnormalities of lipid profile . Methods: This prospective study evaluated lipid profile in 45 primigravid women during normal gestation (in the first & third trimester) and in 30 non-pregnant age matched controls for the period of December   2008 – May 2009 Results: Pregnant women exhibit a significant increase in mean serum cholesterol concentration 226.5 (S.D.42.2) mg/dL in the first trimester when compared with non-pregnant controls 167.9 (27.7) mg/Dl. The serum cholesterol increased significantly throughout gestation to a mean of 316.6 (54.8) mg/dL in the third trimester compared with the first trimester. Triglyceride panel in the first trimester had been similar to those of controls. However, by the third trimester the mean triglyceride concentration had revealed a double value of 227.7 (47.4) mg/dL; compared with the first trimester. There was no significant difference in the LDL level in first trimester when compared to control group. Nevertheless, it increased significantly, from 93.6 (11.9) mg/dL during the first trimester to 178.6 (18.5) mg/dL in the third trimester Conclusion: Atherogenic lipid profile develops during normal gestation. The future significance of these changes remains to be determined. They may have important implications for the mother and fetus.

References

Campos, H., Genest, J. J., Blijlevens, E. Low density lipoprotein particles size and coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis Thromb.1992; 12, 187±195

Silliman, K., Shore, V. and Forte, T. M. Hypertriglyceridemia during late pregnancy is associated with the formation of small dense low-density lipoproteins and the presence of large buoyant high density lipoproteins. Clin. Exp. Metab. 1994; 43, 1035±1041

Tan, K. C. B., Cooper, M. B., Eddie Ling, K. L. Fasting and postprandial determinants for the occurrence of small dense LDL species in non-insulin- dependent diabetic patients with and without hypertriglyceridaemia: the involvement of insulin, insulin precursor species and insulin resistance. Atherosclerosis 1995; 113, 273±287

Rajman, I., Lip, G. H., Cramb, R. Adverse change in low-density lipoprotein subfractions profle with oestrogen-only hormone replacement therapy Q. J. Med. 1996; 89, 771±778

Alvarez, J., Montelongo, A., Iglesias, A. and Lasuncion, M. Longitudinal study on lipoprotein profile, high density lipoprotein subclass, and postheparin lipases during gestation in women. J. Lipid Res. 1996; 37, 299±308

Sanchez SE, Williams MA et al, A case-control study of oxidized low density lipoproteins and preeclampsia risk Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005 Oct; 21(4):193-9

Smolarczyk R, Romejko E: The effect of total estrogens and lactogen hormone on lipid metabolism in women during normal pregnancy. Ginekol Pol; 1996 Sep;67(9):438-42

Darmady, J. and Postle, A. Lipid metabolism in pregnancy. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1982; 89, 211±215

Chiang, A.-N. A., Yang,M.-L., Hung, J.-H. Alterations of serum lipid levels and their biological relevances during and after pregnancy. Life Sci. 1995; 56, 2367±2375

Desoye, G., Schweditsch, M., Pfeiffer, K. and Zechner, R. Correlation of hormones with lipid and lipoprotein levels during normal pregnancy and postpartum. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1987; 64, 704±712

Hurt-Camejo, E., Camejo, G., Rosengreen, B. Differential uptake of proteoglycan selected subfractions of LDL by human macrophages. J. Lipid Res. 1990; 31, 1387±1398

Tripathy C, Malik S, Shah P, Lakshmy R, Tripathy D: Serum insulin and lipid profile in normal pregnant and pregnancy-induced hypertensive women from North India. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 1999 Aug;39(3):321-3.

Griffn, B., Freeman, D., Tait, G. Role of plasma triglyceride in the regulation of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions : relative contribution of small, dense LDL to coronary heart disease risk. Atherosclerosis 1994; 106, 241±253

Herrera, E., Lasuncion, M. A., Gomez-Coronado, D., Lopez-Luna, Role of lipoprotein lipase activity on lipoprotein metabolism and the fate of circulating triglycerides in pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1988; 158, 1575±1583

Coresh, J., Kwiterovich, P. O., Smith, H. H. and Bachorik, P. S. Association of plasma triglyceride concentration and LDL particle diameter, density and chemical composition with premature coronary artery disease in men and women. Clin. Sci. 1995; 88, 311±318

Bengtsson, C., Rybo, G. and Westerberg, H. Number of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives and menopausal age in women with ischemic heart disease, compared to a population sample of women Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 1973; 549, 75±81

Gardner, C. D., Fortmann, S. P. and Krauss, R. M. Association of small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles with the incidence of coronary heart disease in men and women. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1996; 276, 875±881

Mancini, M., Steiner, G., Betteridge, D. J. Acquired (secondary) forms of hypertriglyceridemia. Am. J. Cardiol. 1991; 68, 17A±21A

Bartha JL, Comino-Delgado R: Insulin-sensitivity index and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in gestational diabetes. J Reprod Med; 2000 Mar;45(3):185-9

Kritz- Silverstein, D.,Barrett-Connor, E. and Wingard, D. L. The relationship between multiparity and lipoprotein levels in older women. Clin. Epidemiol. 1992; 45, 761±767

Igweh JC, Nwagha IU, Okaro JM: The effects of menopause on the serum lipid profile of normal females of South East Nigeria. Niger J Physiol Sci; 2005 Jun-Dec;20(1-2):48-53

Walsh, B. W., Schiff, I., Rosner, B. Effects of postmenopausal estrogen on the concentrations and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. Engl. J. Med. (1991) 325, 1196±2004

Sirikulchayanonta C, Singsurapap W, Phuapradit W: The effect of parity on lipid profile in normal pregnant women. J Med Assoc Thai; 2000 Mar;83 Suppl 1:S141-5

Published
2018-10-14
How to Cite
Garabet, S. (2018). Lipid profile in normal pregnancy. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 16(3), 194 - 198. https://doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2012.0034
Section
Original Articles