Gingival health status among patients with transfusion dependent thalassemia (TDT) in Erbil city
Background and objective: Thalassemias constitute a form of anemia that has clear problems in relation to oral health. The purpose of this study to determine whether beta thalassemic disease is associated with increased risk of gingival disease.
Methods: In this case control study, 50 transfusion dependent thalassemic patients aged 12 to 24 years compared with 50 healthy control subjects matching in age and sex. At beginning both beta thalassemic patients and healthy control subjects were receiving scaling and polishing with good oral hygiene instruction and using the same tooth paste and tooth brush in order to obtain zero score at base line. Then, the all subjects were followed up for six month at one week (base line), one month, three months and six months interval. Gingival health status was assessed through these six months by application of Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), Ramfjord calculus index (Cal I) and Loe and Silness Gingival index (GI). Data were analyzed by using chi square, fisher's exact test, student t-test and paired t-test.
Results: At base line, results showed that plaque index and gingival index were higher among beta thalassemic patients than healthy control subjects with no statistical significance difference. Regarding the calculus index, there was no calculus in both groups at base line. After six month follow up (one, three and six month interval) results showed that plaque index, calculus index and gingival index were higher among beta thalassemic patients than healthy control group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Patients with beta thalassemic major showed significant difference in their gingival health status and therefore a special oral hygiene care program needed for this target group.
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