The impact of the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis on periodontal health in a group of patients with periodontitis in Erbil

  • Sazan Moffaq Abdulaziz Department of basic science, college of dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Ashti Mohammad Amin Medical Research Center, HMU, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Solav Abdulqadir Mustafa Department of periodontology, college of dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: CAL, chronic periodontitis, PCR, P. gingivalis, PPD

Abstract

Background and objective: Chronic periodontitis is the destruction of the tooth supporting structures as a result of a complex interaction between bacteria colonizing the gingival crevice and host’s immune responses. Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the main periodontopathogens with multiple virulence factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of Porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients versus healthy subjects using PCR assay, and its association with increased pocket depth and clinical attachment loss.

Methods: Seventy subjects (35 patients with chronic periodontitis and 35 healthy subjects) meeting the inclusion criteria of this study were selected. All the subjects were clinically assessed for probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss then subgingival microbial samples were collected using sterile paper points and analyzed for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis using polymerase chain reaction assay.  

Results: A significant difference in Porphyromonas gingivalis detection rate between chronic periodontitis and healthy groups was recorded. Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly associated with deep pockets. The detection rate increased with the increase in the severity of the disease, although, this correlation was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: A positive association was observed between Porphyromonas gingivalis and increased pocket depth. The recovery rate was higher in severe cases.

References

Kumar PS, Griffen AL, Moeschloeger ML, Leys EJ. Identification of candidate periodontal pathogens and beneficial species by quantitative 16S clonal analysis. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 3944-55.

Vajawat M, Kumar V, Rajeshwari KG, Deepika PC. Clinical, microbiological and molecular study of Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontitis. Int J Basic Appl Med Sci 2013; 3:56-61.

Holt SC, Kesavalu L, Walker S, Genco CA. Virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000; 20:168-238.

Avila-Campos MJ. PCR detection of four periodontopathogens from subgingival clinical samples. Braz J Microbiol 2003; 34:81-4.

Herrera D, Contreras A, Gamonal J, Oteo A, Jaramillo A, Silva N, et al. Subgingival microbial profiles in chronic periodontitis patients from Chile, Colombia and Spain. J Clin Periodontol 2008; 35:106-13.

Lamont RJ, Jenkinson, HF. Life below the gum line: pathogenic mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Microbiol Mol Biol R 1998; 62:1244-63.

Samaranayake L, Jones BM, Scully C. Essential microbiology for dentistry. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone-Elsevier; 2012. p. 291-3.

Brochut PF, Marin I, Baehni P, Mombelli A. Predictive value of clinical and microbiological parameters for the treatment outcome of scaling and root planning. J Clin Periodontol 2005; 32: 695-701.

Suchett-Kaye G, Morrier JJ, Barsotti O. Clinical usefulness of microbiological diagnostic tools in the management of periodontal disease. Res Microbiol 2001; 152:631-9.

Listgarten MA, Loomer PM. Microbial identification in the management of periodontal disease. Ann Periodotol 2003; 8:182-92.

Dewhirst FE, Paster BJ, Tzellas N, Coleman B, Downes J, Spratt DA, et al. Characterization of novel human oral isolates and cloned 16S rDNA sequences that fall in the family Coriobacteriaceae: description of Olsenella gen. nov., reclassification of Lactobacillus uli as Olsenella uli comb. nov. and description of Olsenella profusa sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Micr 2011; 51:1797-804.

Wade WG. Has the use of molecular methods for the characterisation of the human oral microbiome changed our understanding of the role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease? J Clin Periodontol 2011; 38(Suppl. 11):7-16.

Mahon CR, Tice D. Clinical laboratory immunology. New Jersey: Pearson Education; 2006.

Boutaga K, Winkelhoff AJ, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CMJE, Savelkoul PHM. Comparison of Real-Time PCR and Culture for Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in Subgingival Plaque Samples. J Microbiol 2003; 41:4950-4.

Fawzi MM, Fawzi MM, El-Amin HM, Elafandy MH. Detection and quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis from saliva of Schizophrenia patients by culture and Taqman real-time PCR: a pilot study. Life Sci J 2011; 8: 65-74.

Al-Rawi AMM. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis from periodontal pocket infections by microbial cultivation and PCR. Rafidain Journal of Science 2012; 23:39-55.

Haffajee AD, Bogren A, Hasturk H, Feres M, Lopez NJ, Socransky SS. Subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis subjects from different geographic locations. J Clin Periodontol 2004; 31:996-1002.

Escalona LA, Brito A, Almon R, Bravo IM, Perrone M, Correnti M. Distribution of Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in Venezuelan population with chronic periodontitis. Revista Venezolana de Investigacian Odontologica 2007; 7:29-37.

Carranza FA, Newman MG, Henry HT, Klokkevold PR. Carranza’s Clinical Periodontology. 10th edition. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier; 2006.

Sambrook J, Russel DW. Molecular Cloning: a laboratory manual. 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2001. p. 5-14.

Griffen AL, Becker MR, Lyons SR, Moeschberger ML, Leys EJ. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and periodontal health status. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36:3239 - 42.

Boyanova L, Setchanova L, Gergova G, Kostyanev T, Yordanov D, Popova C, et al. Microbiological diagnosis of the sever chronic periodontitis. J IMAB -Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers) 2009; book 2: 89-94.

Lamont R J, Gil S, Demuth DR, Malamud D, Rosan B Molecules of Streptococcus gordonii that bind to porphyromonas gingivalis. Microbiol 1994; 140 (Pt. 4):867-72.

Nelson KE, Fleischmann RD, DeBoy RT, Paulsen IT, Fouts DE, Eisen, JA. Complete genome sequence of the oral pathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83. J Bacteriol 2003; 185:5591-601.

Kawada M, Yoshida A, Suzuki N, Nakano Y, Saito T, Oho T, et al. Prevalence of porphyromonas gingivalis in relation to periodontal status assessed by real-time PCR. Oral Microbiol Immun 2004; 19:289-92.

Tannner ACR, Paster BJ, Lu SC, Kanasi E, Kent R, Van Dyke T, et al. Subgingival and tongue microbiota during early periodontitis. JDR 2006; 85:318-23.

Published
2018-09-19
How to Cite
Abdulaziz, S., Amin, A., & Mustafa, S. (2018). The impact of the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis on periodontal health in a group of patients with periodontitis in Erbil. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 19(3), 1069 _ 1074. https://doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2015.0034
Section
Original Articles