Factors influence on Primigravida’s knowledge regarding exclusive breastfeeding benefits in Maternity Teaching Hospital: Erbil city - Kurdistan region – Iraq
Background and objective: A wealth of evidence demonstrates that exclusive breastfeeding provides numerous short-and long-term benefits for both mother and child. This study aimed to find out the association between socio-demographic characteristics and to predict the associated factors which influence on the knowledge of primigravidas.
Methods: A Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, Iraq, during the period from March 23rd, to July 1st, 2015. A convenience sample of 180 primigravidas was included in the study. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. Chi-square test and linear regression were used to investigate the significance association and predict the factors associated with knowledge.
Results: The study found that most of the primigravidas were between 17 and 23 years old, housewives, primary school graduates, and living in low socio-economic status. The statistically significant association existed between age, education, socio-economic status and occupation of respondents with their knowledge. Linear regression predicted that the age and occupation were two factors associated with primigravida’s knowledge.
Conclusion: Primigravida pregnant in Erbil city demonstrated poor knowledge concerning breastfeeding benefits, the study found a significant association between some of the variables with primigravidas knowledge and age and occupation were two factors which influenced primigravidas knowledge.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics 2005; 115 (2): 496-506.
World Health Organization. The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Report of an Expert Consultation. Geneva, Switzerland 001.Geneva; in Kuzma J (editor): Knowledge, attitude and practice related to infant feeding among women in rural Papua New Guinea: a descriptive, mixed method study. Int Breastfeed J 2013; 16: 2-5.
Hockenberry M J, Wilson D: Wong’s essential of Pediatric Nursing. 9th edition, Mosbey, 2013: 189-197, 201-206, 215 -6.
AL-Azzawi S, Hussin K A, Shaker N Z. Assessment of Breastfeeding Knowledge among Mothers in Erbil. Zanco J Med Sci 2010; 2: 1-6.
Afrose L, Banu B, Ahmed K R, Khanom KH. Factors associated with knowledge about breastfeeding among female garment workers in Dhaka city. WHO South East Asia J Public Health 2012;1(3):249-55.
Premji Sh, Khowaja Sh, Meherali S, Forgeron R. Sociocultural influences on newborn health in the first 6 weeks of life: qualitative study in a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014; 4: (232): 1-12, (access in 10.1.2015) http://www.biomedcentral.com.
Mize L S. Health Alliance International. Improving Maternal and Newborn Health in Timor Leste. Final evaluation report. Project Dates 2008: 1-71.
Zhou Q, Younger K M, Kearney J M. An exploration of the knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding among a sample of Chinese mothers in Ireland. BMC Public Health 2010; 10 (722): 1-11.
Haile D, Biadgilign S. Higher breastfeeding performance index is associated with lower risk of illness in infants under six months in Ethiopia. Int Breastfeed J 2015; 10 (32) : 1-7.
Central for diseases control and prevention (CDC). Breastfeeding Trends and Updated National Health Objectives for Exclusive Breastfeeding- United States, Birth Years 2000—2004. MMWR 2007; 56(30);760-763. available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5630a2.htm.
Davis R M. Does prenatal breastfeeding education impact exclusive breastfeeding the hospital? An examination of prenatal classes, self- efficacy, previous experience, hospital practices, race, and intention as contributing factors. (Msc. theses). Maternal and Child Health. University of North Carolina; 2013.
Heinig MJ. Host defense benefits of BF for the infant: effect of BF duration and exclusivity. Pediatr Clin 2001; 48: 105–23.
Saied H, Mohamed A, Suliman A. Breastfeeding knowledge, Attitude and Barriers among Saudi Women in Riyadh. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2013; 3 (12) : 6-13.
Neupane J E, Kiragu R, Kandel S. Knowledge, Attitude and challenges of exclusive breastfeeding among primigravida: A literature review. Theses; Cenrtia University of applied sciences. Degree Programme in Nursing; 2014.
Stewart-Glenn J. Knowledge, Perceptions, and Attitudes of Managers, Coworkers, and Employed Breastfeeding Mothers. AAOHN 2008. available at www.whs.sagepub.com.
Narayan SH, Natarajan N, Bawa S C. Maternal and Neonatal Factors Adversely Affecting Breastfeeding in the Perinatal Period, Med J Armed Forces India 2005; 61: 216-9,
Karimi B, Sani M Z. Ghorbani R, Danai N. the Pregnant Mothers' Knowledge About Breastfeeding in Semnan, Iran, Middle East J Rehabil Health 2014; 1(1): e20833.
Thamizhvanan EP, Ganesh K, Chaitanya BL. A Quazi-experimental study to assiss the effectiveness of educational package on knowledge regarding breastfeeding among primigravidae mothers: a study from southern India. Asia Pacific Journal of Research 2015; 1 (14) : 66-72.
Najem B, Al-Deen L Dh. Knowledge, attitudes and sources of information on breastfeeding among medical professionals in Baghdad. Iraqi J Comm Med 2011; 24 (3): 192-5.
Kumar A, Unnikrishnan B, Rekhat T, Mithra P, Kumar N, Vaman kulkarni, et al. Awareness and Attitude Regarding Breastfeeding and Immunization Practices Among Primigravida Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 2015; 9 (3): 1- 5.
Mallik S, Dasgupta U, Naskar S, Sengupta D, Choudhury K, Kumar S. Knowledge of breastfeeding and timely initiation of it amongst post-natal mothers : An experience from a baby friendly teaching hospital of a metropolitan city. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 2013; 4 (1): 25- 30. www.iosrjournals.org.
Mohite VR, Kakade SV. Knowledge of breastfeeding among primigravida mothers. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science 2012; 11 (4): 312-7.
Mahmoud N A, Megahed N M, Megahed M M, Ibraheem M M, BelalMarrouf O, Hussein E K, et al. Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Proper Breastfeeding among Mothers Attending- El-Shohada Primary Health Care Units, Ismailia City. Life Sci J 2014; 2 (1):70-8. Available at: www.researchpublish.com.
Parveen N, Majeed R, Khawaja M A. Evaluation of breastfeeding practices. GJMS 2009;7(1):14-6.
General Health of Erbil Directorate. Official Census document. Statistic department; 2015.
UNHCR. The UN refugee agency. UNHCR country operations profile – Iraq. 2015. available at http://www.unhcr.org.
Shwani Sh S. Impact of health educational program upon caregivers’ knowledge and practices of acute leukemic adolescent’ quality of life in Erbil city. PhD. Dissertation. Hawler Medical University, College of Nursing. Iraq; 2012.
Dhandapany G, Bethou A, Arunagirinathan A, Ananthakrishnan S. Antenatal counseling on breastfeeding – is it adequate? A descriptive study from Pondicherry. Int Breastfeed J 2008; 3 (5): 1-4.
Simon M, Sebastian N M, Alex N, Tamrakar A. Knowledge Regarding Breast Feeding among Primi Mothers in Selected Hospital of Bangalore, Karnataka. AIJRHASS 2014; 8 (1): 87-91 Available online at http://www.iasir.net.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright on any article published in Zanco J Med Sci is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).